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Complete Report for San Andreas fault zone, Peninsula section (Class A) No. 1c

Brief Report ||Partial Report

Compiled in cooperation with the California Geological Survey

citation for this record: Bryant, W.A., and Lundberg, M.Matthew, compilers, 2002, Fault number 1c, San Andreas fault zone, Peninsula section, in Quaternary fault and fold database of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey website, http://earthquakes.usgs.gov/hazards/qfaults, accessed 04/19/2014 03:23 AM.

Synopsis General: The 1,100-km-long San Andreas fault zone is the principal element of the San Andreas fault system, a network of faults with predominantly dextral strike-slip displacement that collectively accommodates the majority of relative N-S motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Major elements of the San Andreas fault system include the Bartlett Springs [29], Maacama [30], Rodgers Creek [32], Green Valley [37], Calaveras [54], Hayward [55], San Gregorio [60], San Jacinto [125], Elsinore [126], and Imperial [132] fault zones. In this compilation, the San Andreas fault zone is considered to be the Holocene and historically active dextral strike-slip fault that extends along most of coastal California from its complex junction with the Mendocino fault zone [18] on the north, southeast to the northern Transverse Range and inland to the Salton Sea, where a well-defined zone of seismicity (the Brawley Seismic Zone [124]) transfers slip to the Imperial fault [132] along a right-releasing step. Two major surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred in historic time: the 1857 Fort Tejon (Sieh, 1978 #5775) and 1906 San Francisco (Lawson, 1908 #4969) earthquakes. Additional historic surface rupturing earthquakes include the unnamed 1812 earthquake along the Mojave section [1h] (Jacoby and others, 1988 #4962; Sieh and others, 1989 #5779; Fumal and others, 2002 #5726) and the northern part of the San Bernardino Mountains section [1i] (Weldon and Sieh, 1985 #5806; Jacoby and others, 1987 #4961; 1988 #4962), and a large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay area that occurred in 1838 that was probably on the Peninsula section [1c] of the San Andreas fault (Toppozada and Borchardt, 1998 #5493; Bakun, 1999 #4790). Historic fault creep at rates as high as 32 mm/yr characterizes the 132-km-long Creeping section [1e] in central California (Burford and Harsh, 1980 #4806). The creep rate gradually tapers off to 0 mm/yr at the northwestern and southeastern ends of this section. The northern and southern ends of the Creeping section [1e] are transitional to the surface-rupture termination points of the 1906 earthquake to the north and 1857 earthquake to the south. Creep at rates as high as 4 mm/yr also has been measured on the Coachella section [1j] (Sieh and Williams, 1990 #5780). The San Andreas fault zone is the most extensively studied fault in California, and perhaps in the world. The fault zone first gained international scientific attention immediately following the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Lawson's 1908 report summarizing the investigation of the 1906 earthquake contained the first integrated description of the San Andreas fault, which was recognized as extending from Point Delgada in the north to Whitewater Canyon southeast of San Bernardino in the south, and formed the underlying basis for our modern studies of paleoseismology and earthquake geology (Prentice, 1999 #5755). More than 5,000 articles, maps, and publications describing various aspects of the San Andreas fault that have been produced since Lawson's pioneering work. In addition, there are about 1,000 site-specific fault rupture investigation reports (and maps) filed with the California Geological Survey in compliance with the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act (Hart and Bryant, 1997 #4856). For this compilation, 43 detailed paleoseismic study sites along the fault zone are summarized. The fastest, generally accepted Holocene slip rate for the San Andreas fault is along the Cholame-Carrizo section [1g], which lies in the medial portion of the 1,100-km-long fault zone. Here, Sieh and Jahns (1984 #5778) reported a preferred late Holocene dextral slip rate of 33.9?2.9 mm/yr. In and south of the San Francisco Bay area, a significant portion of dextral slip is partitioned onto several faults of the San Andreas fault system, including the San Gregorio [60] on the west, and the Calaveras [54] and Hayward [55] faults on the east. Hall and others (1999 #4954) reported a late Holocene slip rate of 17?4 mm/yr for the Peninsula section [1c]. North of the Golden Gate, dextral slip from the San Gregorio fault zone [60] may be transferred to the North Coast section [1b] along a right-releasing step. Reported late Holocene slip rates for the North Coast section [1b] range from a minimum value of 16-18 mm/yr reported by Noller and others (1996 #5748) to a maximum value of 25.5?2.5 mm/yr reported by Prentice (1989 #5754). To the south, the San Andreas fault zone is delineated by an extremely complex zone of dextral strike-slip, reverse-oblique, and thrust faults in the southeastern Transverse Ranges. Fault nomenclature in the San Gorgonio Pass area is complex and different workers have assigned faults different names. West-northwest of San Gorgonio Pass Dibblee (1964 #1340; 1968 #4817; 1982 #4841) termed the principal active strand of the San Andreas fault located along the foot of the San Bernardino Mountains the South Branch San Andreas fault, which is referred to as the San Andreas fault by Allen (1957 #4787) and San Bernardino strand San Andreas fault by Matti and others (1992 #5735). For this compilation, this strand will be referred to as the San Andreas fault (South Branch). A fault that strikes sub-parallel located to the north was called the North Branch San Andreas fault by Dibblee (1964 #1340; 1968 #4817) and is referred to as the Mill Creek fault by Allen (1957 #4787), Matti and others (1992 #5735), and Jennings (1994 #2878). This strand will be referred to as the Mill Creek fault in this compilation. East-southeast of San Gorgonio Pass two principal dextral strike-slip faults comprise the Holocene active San Andreas fault zone. The southern trace has been referred to as the South Branch San Andreas fault by Dibblee (1967 #1345; 1981 #4840) and Jennings (1994 #2878); Matti and others (1992 #5735) refer to this trace as the Coachella Valley segment, Banning fault. This branch will be referred to as the South Branch San Andreas fault (Banning strand) in this compilation. The northern trace is referred to as the North Branch San Andreas fault by Dibblee (1967 #1345; 1981 #4840) and Jennings (1994 #2878); Mission Creek fault by Allen (1957 #4787); Matti and others (1992 #5735) named this trace the Coachella Valley segment, San Andreas fault and will be referred to as the North Branch San Andreas fault (Coachella strand) in this compilation. Refer to Matti and others (1992 #5735) for a detailed discussion of San Andreas fault nomenclature for the Mojave [1h], San Bernardino [1i], and Coachella [1j] sections. Weldon and Sieh (1985 #5806) reported a Holocene slip rate of 24?4 mm/yr at the northern end of the San Bernardino Mountains section [1i]. Harden and Matti (1989 #4955) reported a preferred Holocene slip rate of 14 mm/yr to 25 mm/yr near Yucaipa along the San Andreas fault (South Branch). Keller and others (1982 #4964) reported a preferred late Quaternary slip rate of 23 mm/yr to 35 mm/yr for the Coachella section [1j] near Biskra Palms. Surface-exposure age constraints (10Be-26Al) of the offset alluvial fan complex at Biskra Palms yields a better constrained late Quaternary dextral slip rate of 23.3?3.5 mm/yr (van der Woerd and others, 2001 #5800). Several average values of recurrence have been reported for the fault zone; in general they range from a little more than 100 to as much as 450 yr. The North Coast section [1b] ranges from 180-260 yr (Niemi and Hall, 1992 #5747) to 200-400 yr for the past 2 k.y. (Prentice, 1989 #5754). The Santa Cruz Mountains section [1d] is 247-266 yr (Schwartz and others, 1998 #5771) and the Cholame-Carrizo section [1g] is 160-450 yr (Sieh and Jahns, 1984 #5778; Grant and Sieh, 1994 #4950; Sims, 1994 #5787; Stone and others, 2002 #5792). Recurrence intervals for the Mojave section [1h] are well-constrained based on paleoseismic studies by Sieh and others (1989 #5779), Biasi and others (2002 #5724) and Fumal and others (1993 #624; 2002 #5725). Sieh and others (1989 #5779) reported an average recurrence interval of 132 yr for the time interval 734 A. D. to 1857 at Pallett Creek, whereas Biasi and others (2002 #5724) refined the average recurrence interval at 135 yr. Fumal and others (2002 #5725) reported an average recurrence interval of 105 yr for the past 500 yr at Wrightwood. An average recurrence interval of 150-275 yr has been reported for the northern San Bernardino Mountains section by Weldon and Sieh (1985 #5806), Seitz and Weldon (1994 #5772), and Yule and others (2001 #4948). The Coachella section [1j] averages large earthquakes about 207-233 yr based on Sieh (1986 #5777).

Sections: This fault has 10 sections. From north to south they are the Shelter Cove [1a], North Coast [1b], Peninsula [1c], Santa Cruz Mountains [1d], Creeping [1e], Parkfield [1f], Cholame-Carrizo [1g], Mojave [1h], San Bernardino Mountains [1i], and Coachella [1j] sections. Different behavior patterns along different parts of the San Andreas fault where first noticed when Steinbrugge and Zacher (1960 #5791) documented creep along the fault in central California. Since that time, other workers have proposed various segmentation models for the San Andreas fault including five segments by Allen (1968 #4788), eight segments by Wallace (1970 #1423), 12 segments by Sykes and Nishenko (1984 #5794), Petersen and others (1996 #4860), the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (1988 #5494; 1995 #4945; 1999 #4946), and the Working Group on Northern California Earthquake Probabilities (1996 #1216). Some segment boundaries are well documented or constrained for the San Andreas fault zone, whereas others are not. For this compilation, boundaries generally are similar to those described in models adopted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (1988 #5494; 1990 #549; 1995 #4945; 1999 #4946), the Working Group on Northern California Earthquake Probabilities (1996 #1216), and Petersen and others (1996 #4860).
Name comments General:
Traces of the San Andreas fault were first mapped in northern California by Lawson (1893 #4967) and were first named the San Andreas rift by Lawson (1895 #4968) after the type locality of the fault in the San Andreas Valley (San Mateo County, California). North of San Francisco, Anderson (1899 #4789) mapped traces of the fault on the Point Reyes Peninsula, but did not name the fault. Schuyler (1896-1897 #5769) described parts of the fault zone in southern California for a 200-mi (about 320-km) length through Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties and referred to the fault not as the San Andreas but as the "great earthquake crack", referring to surface fault ruptures associated with the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. The significance and extent of the San Andreas fault was not recognized until after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. J.C. Branner and S. Tabor proposed the name Portola-Tomales for the fault zone, but A.C. Lawson (1908 #4969) preferred the term "San Andreas fault" (Hill, 1981 #4958). For this compilation, we use San Andreas fault zone owing to the complex nature and multiple strands (or faults) that comprise the structure.

Section:
Section extends from offshore Golden Gate southeast to vicinity of northern Santa Cruz Mountains, near Black Mountain. The southern boundary with the Santa Cruz Mountains section [1d] is delineated by an approximately 1-km-wide, left-restraining bend (Scholz, 1985 #5767). The Peninsula section boundaries are based on segment boundaries proposed by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (1999 #4946).

Fault ID Comments:
Refers to Jennings (1994 #2878) numbers 87 (San Andreas fault (SAF) Shelter Cove), 116 (SAF splays), 119 (SAF Fort Ross to Manchester), 145 (SAF offshore), 147 (SAF offshore Bolinas), 162 (SAF boundary faults), 194 (SAF San Francisco to Watsonville), 217 (SAF 1989 ground fractures), 234 (SAF San Juan Bautista to Priest Valley), 240 (SAF historic creep), 278 (SAF Priest Valley to Cuyama), 311 (SAF Cuyama to Palmdale), 358 (SAF Palmdale to Cajon Canyon), 360 (SAF 1812 rupture), 427 (Mill Creek), 427A (SAF Cajon Canyon to Burro Flats), 452 (SAF South Branch), 453 (SAF North Branch), 472 (SAF Indio to Salton Sea), 477 (SAF Bombay Beach and vicinity), 452 (SAF South Branch), 449 (Banning fault western part), and 450 (Mission Creek fault), and numbers A1 (SAF 1906 rupture), A2 (SAF Peninsula), A3 (SAF Santa Cruz Mountains), and A7 (SAF creeping section) of the Working Group on Northern California Earthquake potential (1996 #1216).
County(s) and State(s) SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
SAN MATEO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
Physiographic province(s) PACIFIC BORDER
Reliability of location Good
Compiled at 1:750,000 scale.

Comments: Location based on digital revisions to Jennings (1994 #2878) 1:750,00-scale map using original mapping by Smith (1981 #5789) and Pampeyan (1993 #5749, 1994 #5409) at 1:24,000 scale and mapping by Brown (1972 #1321) at 1:62,500 scale.

Geologic setting The San Andreas fault zone is a major dextral strike-slip fault zone that extends for about 1,100 km along the western side of California. It is near the coast in northern California, but stays entirely inland to the south of San Francisco, extending all the way to the northern Gulf of California in Mexico. The San Andreas fault zone is the principal element of a network of dextral strike-slip faults that constitute the San Andreas fault system that collectively accommodates the majority of relative N-S motion between the Pacific and North American plates (Wallace, 1990 #5804). Wilson (1965 #4947) first proposed that the San Andreas fault was a transform fault connecting two spreading oceanic ridges between the Pacific and North American plates. The San Andreas fault zone extends from the Salton Trough near Bombay Beach northwest to its complex junction with the Mendocino fault zone [18] near Punta Gorda. At the southern end of the fault zone near Bombay Beach, dextral slip is transferred to the Imperial fault [132] along a right-releasing step-over delineated by a zone of seismicity referred to as the Brawley Seismic Zone [124]. The San Andreas fault traverses the length of the Coast Ranges geomorphic subprovince and forms the boundary between the Transverse Range and Mojave Desert geomorphic subprovinces as well as the boundary between the Salton Trough and Mojave Desert geomorphic subprovinces. Noble (1926 #1592) was the first to suggest a large amount of dextral slip (38 km) on the San Andreas fault. Hill and Dibblee (1953 #923) postulated that as much as 560 km of dextral slip has occurred on the basis of proposed correlation of Mesozoic basement rocks. Post-early Miocene cumulative dextral slip is approximately 315 km, based on correlation of the Neenach Volcanic Formation (22.5-24.1 Ma minimum K-Ar age reported in Sims, 1993 #5786) on the east side of the fault zone with early Miocene Pinnacles Formation (24.2?0.5 Ma average K-Ar age reported in Sims, 1993 #5786) on the west side of the fault (Matthews, 1976 #931). Stanley (1987 #5790) reported 325-330 km of post late Oligocene dextral slip and 320-325 km of post-early Miocene dextral slip. Further discussions of the displacement history the San Andreas fault zone are included in Powell (1993 #5753), Weldon and others (1993 #5807), and Matti and Morton (1993 #5737).

Length (km) This section is 87 km of a total fault length of 1082 km.
Average strike N36°W (for section) versus (for whole fault)
Sense of movement Dextral

Comments: Well-defined geomorphic expression of dextral strike-slip faulting (Smith, 1981 #5789), dextral displacement associated with 1906 San Francisco earthquake (Lawson, 1908 #4969), and geodetically determined dextral slip (Thatcher and others, 1997 #5795).

Dip 90°

Comments: Vertical dip based on linear geomorphic expression of fault, and vertical to near vertical fault zone expressed in trench exposures by Hall (1984 #4951), Clahan (1996 #4807), and Hall and others (1999 #4954). Well-defined seismicity shows vertical fault zone at depth (Hill and others, 1990 #4957).

Paleoseismology studies Two paleoseismic sites have been investigated along this section of the fault, much of which lies within protected areas.

Crystal Springs Reservoir site (1-10). Hall (1984 #4951) excavated and logged 304 m of trenches and bulldozer pits located between San Andreas Lake and Crystal Springs Reservoir. At one site north of Crystal Springs Reservoir, reconstruction of the depositional history of a dextrally offset incised stream channel, based on trench exposures, allowed calculation of a late Holocene slip rate for the Peninsula section.

Filoli site (1-11). Studies by Clahan (1996 #4807) and Hall and others (1999 #4954) involved the excavation of several fault normal and fault parallel trenches across traces of the Peninsula section at the Filoli site. Several dextrally offset paleo-stream channels were identified and a late Holocene slip rate was calculated using this data.

Geomorphic expression The Peninsula section is delineated by geomorphic features characteristic of Holocene dextral offset such as dextrally deflected and offset drainages, linear drainages, sidehill benches, closed depressions, aligned benches, linear scarps, linear troughs, saddles, and linear vegetation contrasts (Smith, 1981 #5789).

Age of faulted surficial deposits Late Holocene fluvial deposits are offset near San Andreas Lake. Hall (1984 #4951) and Prentice and others (1991 #5756) reported an age of 1,810?50 yr BP (AMS radiocarbon) to 2,790?60 yr BP for faulted alluvial fan. Clahan (1996 #4807) identified late Holocene fluvial deposits offset by the fault. These deposits range in age from 500?60 yr BP to 2,070?120 yr BP, based on AMS 14C dating.
Historic earthquake San Francisco earthquake 1906
Most recent prehistoric deformation Latest Quaternary (<15 ka)

Comments: The most recent event is the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the penultimate (most recent paleoevent) event along the Peninsula section may be an earthquake that occurred in 1838 that is interpreted to have been on the San Andreas fault, although direct evidence is not yet available (Tuttle and Sykes, 1992 #5799; Bakun, 1998 #4791; Toppozada and Borchardt, 1998 #5493). A 330?200 yr BP (AMS radiocarbon) age was obtained from stream channel b, which is dextrally offset 4.1?0.5 m at the Filoli site (site 1-11) (Hall and others, 1999 #4954). The reported dextral offset associated with the 1906 earthquake near the Filoli site was 2.5?0.5 m, suggesting that the remaining 1.6?0.7 m may represent dextral displacement associated with the penultimate (1838?) earthquake. The timing of earlier events for the Peninsula section has not been determined.

Recurrence interval 225 yr

Comments: Hall (1984 #4951) reported an average recurrence interval of about 225 yr based on the slip rate determined for the Crystal Springs Reservoir site (site 1-10) and the assumption that the dextral displacement of 2.7 m associated with the 1906 earthquake is characteristic for the Peninsula section.
Slip-rate category Greater than 5.0 mm/yr

Comments: Hall (1984 #4951) reported a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 12 mm/yr at the Crystal Springs Reservoir site (1-10), based on a 13 m dextrally offset incised stream channel. The maximum age of offset is assumed to be 1,130?160 yr BP, which is the 14C age of deposits into which the stream channel was incised. This site was re-excavated in 1990 and re-sampled for better age control (Prentice and others, 1991 #5756). Seven AMS radiocarbon dates determined from detrital charcoal ranged from 1,810?50 14C yr BP to 2,790?60 14C yr BP. Prentice and others (1991 #5756) estimated that the highest slip rate that can be derived from the revised ages is 8-9 mm/yr, which is considerably lower than what is expected for this section of the San Andreas fault. They speculated that the model used to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of the site may be incorrect. Later, Hall and others (1999 #4954) reported a preferred late Holocene slip rate of 17?4 mm/yr for the Filoli site (1-11). This rate is based on 30?2 m of dextral offset of paleo-stream channels exposed at the head of Spring Creek. These channels were dated at 2,070?120 yr BP to 1,730?140 yr BP (AMS radiocarbon age). A younger buried stream channel with an AMS radiocarbon age of 580?60 yr BP is dextrally offset 10.9?0.5 m, indicating a late Holocene slip rate of 19?3 mm/yr (Clahan and others, 1995 #4808).
Date and Compiler(s) 2002
William A. Bryant, California Geological Survey
Matthew Lundberg, California Geological Survey
References #4787 Allen, C.R., 1957, San Andreas fault zone in San Gorgonio Pass, southern California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 68, no. 3, p. 315-350.

#4788 Allen, C.R., 1968, The tectonic environments of seismically active and inactive areas along the San Andreas fault system, in Dickinson, W.R., and Grantz, A., eds., Proceedings of conference on geologic problems of San Andreas fault system: Palo Alto, California, Stanford University Publications, Geological Sciences, v. XI, p. 70-82.

#4789 Anderson, F.M., 1899, The geology of Point Reyes Peninsula: Berkeley, California, University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, v. 2, p. 119-153.

#4791 Bakun, W.H., 1998, Scenarios for historic San Francisco Bay region earthquakes: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-785, 14 p.

#4790 Bakun, W.H., 1999, Seismic activity of the San Francisco Bay region: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 89, no. 3, p. 764-784.

#5724 Biasi, G.P., Weldon, R.J., II, Fumal, T.E., and Seitz, G.G., 2002, Paleoseismic event dating and the conditional probability of large earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2761-2781.

#1321 Brown, R.D., Jr., 1972, Active faults, probable active faults, and associated fracture zones, San Mateo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-355 (U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Basic Data Contribution 44), 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500.

#4806 Burford, R.O., and Harsh, P.W., 1980, Slip on the San Andreas fault in central California from alignment array surveys: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 70, no. 4, p. 1233-1261.

#4807 Clahan, K.B., 1996, Paleoseismic characteristics of the San Andreas fault, Woodside, California: San Jose, California, San Jose State University, unpublished M.S. thesis, 96 p., 27 pls.

#4808 Clahan, K.B., Hall, N.T., and Wright, R.H., 1995, Late Holocene slip rate and slip events for the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, no. 5, p. 9-10.

#1340 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1964, Geologic map of the San Gorgonio Mountain quadrangle San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-431, 3 p. pamphlet, 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500.

#1345 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1967, Geologic map of the Morongo Valley quadrangle San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-517, 4 p. pamphlet, 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500.

#4817 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1968, Displacements on the San Andreas fault system in San Gabriel, San Bernardino, and San Jacinto Mountains, southern California, in Dickinson, W.R., and Grantz, A., eds., Proceedings of conference on geologic problems of San Andreas fault system: Palo Alto, California, Stanford University Publications in Geological Sciences, v. XI, p. 269-278.

#4840 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1981, Geologic map of the Palm Springs (15 minute) quadrangle, California: South Coast Geological Society, Geologic Map SCGS-3, scale 1:62,500.

#4841 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1982, Geology of the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California, in Fife, D.L., and Minch, J.A., eds., Geology and mineral wealth of the California Transverse Ranges--Mason Hill Volume: South Coast Geological Society Guidebook 10, p. 148-169.

#5726 Fumal, T.E., Rymer, M.J., and Seitz, G.G., 2002, Timing of large earthquakes since A.D. 800 on the Mission Creek strand of the San Andreas fault zone at Thousand Palms Oasis, near Palm Springs, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2841-2860.

#5725 Fumal, T.E., Weldon, R.J., II, Biasi, G.P., Dawson, T.E., Seitz, G.G., Frost, W.T., and Schartz, D.P., 2002, Evidence for large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault at the Wrightwood, California, paleoseismic site--A.D. 500 to present: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2726-2760.

#4950 Grant, L.B., and Sieh, K., 1994, Paleoseismic evidence of clustered earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 99, no. B4, p. 6819-6841.

#4951 Hall, N.T., 1984, Holocene history of the San Andreas fault between Crystal Springs Reservoir and San Andreas Dam, San Mateo County, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 74, no. 1, p. 281-299.

#4954 Hall, N.T., Wright, R.H., and Clahan, K.B., 1999, Paleoseismic studies of the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault zone near Woodside, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B10, p. 23,215-23,236.

#4955 Harden, J.W., and Matti, J.C., 1989, Holocene and late Pleistocene slip rate on the San Andreas fault in Yucaipa, California, using displaced alluvial-fan deposits and soil chronology: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 1107-1117.

#4856 Hart, E.W., and Bryant, W.A., 1997, Fault-rupture hazard zones in California: California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 42, 38 p.

#4957 Hill, D.P., Eaton, J.P., and Jones, L.M., 1990, Seismicity--1980-1986, in Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas fault system: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 115-151.

#4958 Hill, M.L., 1981, San Andreas fault--History of concepts: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 92, p. 112-131.

#923 Hill, M.L., and Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1953, San Andreas, Garlock, and Big Pine faults, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 64, p. 443-458.

#4961 Jacoby, G.C., Sheppard, P.R., and Sieh, K.E., 1987, Was the 8 December 1812 California earthquake produced by the San Andreas fault?--Evidence from trees near Wrightwood [abs.]: Seismological Research Letters, v. 58, no. 1, p. 14.

#4962 Jacoby, G.C., Sheppard, P.R., and Sieh, K.E., 1988, Irregular recurrence of large earthquakes along the San Andreas fault--Evidence from trees: Science, v. 241, p. 196-199.

#2878 Jennings, C.W., 1994, Fault activity map of California and adjacent areas, with locations of recent volcanic eruptions: California Division of Mines and Geology Geologic Data Map 6, 92 p., 2 pls., scale 1:750,000.

#4964 Keller, E.A., Bonkowski, M.S., Korsch, R.J., and Shlemon, R.J., 1982, Tectonic geomorphology of the San Andreas fault zone in the southern Indio Hills, Coachella Valley, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 93, no. 1, p. 46-56.

#4968 Lawson, A.C., 1895, Sketch of the geology of the San Francisco peninsula, California: U.S. Geological Survey Annual Report, v. 15, p. 399-476.

#4969 Lawson, A.C., chairman, 1908, The California earthquake of April 18, 1906, Report of the State earthquake investigation commission: Washington, D.C., Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 87.

#931 Matthews, V., III, 1976, Correlation of Pinnacles and Neenach volcanic formations and their bearing on San Andreas fault problem: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 60, no. 12, p. 2128-2141.

#5737 Matti, J.C., and Morton, D.M., 1993, Paleogeographic evolution of the San Andreas fault in southern California--A reconstruction based on a new cross-fault correlation, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., II, and Matti, J.C., ed., The San Andreas fault system--Displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 107-160.

#5735 Matti, J.C., Morton, D.M., and Cox, B.F., 1992, The San Andreas fault system in the vicinity of the central Transverse Ranges province, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-354, 49 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:125,000.

#5747 Niemi, T.M., and Hall, N.T., 1992, Late Holocene slip rate and recurrence of great earthquakes on the San Andrea fault in northern California: Geology, v. 20, no. 3, p. 196-198.

#1592 Noble, L.F., 1926, The San Andreas rift and some other active faults in the desert region of southeastern California: Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 25, p. 415-428.

#5748 Noller, J.S., Simpson, G.D., and Lightfoot, K., 1996, Paleoseismic and geoarchaeologic investigations of the northern San Andreas fault, Fort Ross, California, in National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, Summaries of technical reports: U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program External Research Program, Annual Project Summaries, v. 37, http://erp-web.er.usgs.gov/reports/annsum/vol37/nc/g2474.htm.

#5749 Pampeyan, E.H., 1993, Maps showing recently active fault breaks along the San Andreas fault from Mussel Rock to the central Santa Cruz Mountains, California: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 93-684, scale 1:24,000.

#5409 Pampeyan, E.H., 1994, Geologic map of the Montara Mountain and San Mateo quadrangles, San Mateo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-2390, scale 1:24,000.

#4860 Petersen, M.D., Bryant, W.A., Cramer, C.H., Cao, T., Reichle, M.S., Frankel, A.D., Lienkaemper, J.J., McCrory, P.A., and Schwartz, D.P., 1996, Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the State of California: California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 96-08 (also U.S. Geological Open-File Report 96-706), 33 p.

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